The impact of replacing saturated fat with other nutrients
The authors of reference 2 make some additional points:
We tend to think of LDL as the "bad" cholesterol. However, it is the smaller and more dense LDL particles that contribute to atherosclerosis.
A low carbohydrate diet (26% or less calories from carbohydrates) decreases the concentration of the small LDL particles.
High dietary fat consumption increases the larger LDL particles and HDL (the "good" cholesterol").
These results strengthen the previous conclusion, that reduction of saturated fat by substitution of carbohydrates is not conducive to optimal heart health. Substitution of monounsaturated fats in place of saturated fats increases the total to HDL cholesterol ratio, and this in turn, is a healthy result. (For more details, please click here).